© 2002-2004 Matthias Weiland,
Build on 11/05/2002, last update on
A little bit history of Australia
- Oldest life forms are living on the surface of the continent already 3 billion years ago.
(oldest discovered life form, discoverd at Marble Bar, WA )
- About 40 000 years ago the first aboriginal people are make their way into nowadays Australia via Southeast Asia.
- For 55 million years Australia is seperated from the southern continent Gonwana.
At approximately this time the Great Dividing Range was formed
- During 13th/14th century Chinese and Arabs presumambly go ashore at Australias coast.
- In 1606 Willem Jansz arrvives at the western coast of Cape York (Queensland) and as first European sets foot on Australian ground.
- In 1607 Luis Vaez de Torres is sailing through the isthmus between Cape York and New Guinea, which thereafter is called
- In 1616 Dirk Hartog goes ashore at the West Coast.
- In 1642 Abel Tasman discovers the southern tip of Tasmania and sail along the northern coast and north-western coast in 1643.
- In 1688 pirate William Dampier sets foot onto Australian ground as the first English person.
- Captain James Cook (at this moment not even Captain) is anchoring in Botany Bay on the way back from the south pacific ocean.
In August he takes possesion of the eastern part of Australia as New South Wales for the British.
- In 1788 Captain Arthur Philip arrives at Botany Bay with the first fleet of prisoners. Due to better natural circumstances
they finally set up their settlement in Sydney Cove. Just shortly afterwards the french ships Boussole and Astrolabe
lead by La Perouse arrive at Botany Bay.
- The first independent settler arrive in 1793.
- John MacArthur is introducing the merino sheep on the continent in 1797.
- In 1802/1803 Mathew Flinders is sailing around the whole continent as a cartographer.
- The first load of whool is leaving Australia for the UK in 1807.
- In 1809 Governor Macquarie dissolves the Rum Corps and brings the rule of the officers to an end.
He is introducing an uniform currency and founding the first bank.
The Colony expanding further west with the first crossing of the Blue Mountains in 1813.
- New South Wales officially becomes a British Colony in 1823. The now arriving free settlers are outnumbering the prisoners soon.
- In 1844 Ludwig Leichardt leaves Brisbane for Port Essington on the Coburg Peninsula, where he arrives 14 months later. On
his second expidition in 1848 he is disappearing without trace.
- With the first discovery of gold the gold rush starts in Bathurst (New South Wales) in 1851.
- 1854 Eureka Stockade: Armed rebellion against licence fees for gold diggers, which is crushed by police and military.
The impact of this only civil war on Australian ground on the developement of democratic or radical tendencies in
Australian politics is controversial.
- John McDouall is crossing the continent from south to north as the first in 1862.
- In 1872 the overland telegraph line is connecting Australia to the UK and allows a quick message transission.
- 1880 Year of foundation of the magazine Bulletin, which developes into an organ for Australian writers, e.g.
Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson. During the same year Australians most famous Bushranger Ned Kelly ends up on the
- The Australian Salvation Army is shooting the worldwide first movie in 1900.
- The several colonies are uniting for the Commonwealth of Australia on 1st January 1901. 3,7 million inhabitants are voting
for the first time. Edmond Barton becomes first Prime Minister - beginning of the White Australia Policy concerning
non european immigrants.
- The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) is seperated from New South Wales, the capital Canberra is to be build here.
- In 1915 during the first World War the Australian-New Zealand Army (for the British Commonwealth) is facing heavy losses
at Gallipoli (Turkey). In comparison to population (5 million) the Army has the highest losses during the war (60 000 dead,
150 000 injured). John Pilger wrote: "No army was as decimated as that which came from the farthest away."
The day of the first landing(25th April) is national holiday since then (ANZAC Day).
- Canberra, which is official capital since 1911, becomes seat of government in 1927.
- 1939 Entry into the Second World War.
- Japanese bombs are dropped on Darwin and Broome.
- 1945 On the 15th August Australia is celebrating the end of the Second World War and is mourning over 35 000 war dead.
Australia is joining the United Nations.
- The ANZUS-Treaty - a defence alliance is formed between Australia, New Zealand and the USA in 1951.
- 1951 British nuclear weapons tests in the southern Australian desert.
- 1956 Melbourne is hosting the Olympic Summer Games. Australia is winning 35 medals.
- In 1960 aboriginal people become citizens with the right for social security contributions.
- 1962 Introduction of the right to vote for aboriginal people. Australia is sending soldiers for the Vietnam war.
- 1972 Australia is losing its most important market when the UK is joining the European Union. The United Tasmania Group
is the first green party world wide. The Labour Party wins the election with Gough Whitlam.
- 1973 White Australia Policy is abolished. Patrick White is awarded the literature nobel prize for his book
The Eye of the Storm as first Australian. During the same year the opera house in Sydney is opened.
- 1974 Darwin is razed to the ground by Cyclone Tracy on Boxing Day.
- 1975 Prime Minister Gough Whitlam is dismissed by General Governor Kerr, one of the biggest Australian political
- 1983 Australian yachtsmen win the America's Cup with the millionaire Alan Bond, the biggest triumph
- 1988 Australia is celebrating its 200 anniversary - an affront for the aboriginal people.
- 1992 The Mabo sentence - pioneer decisions concerning property in favour of the native people.
- In 1996 the conservatives under John Howard get into power after 13 years of opposition; re-election 1998.
- In 1999 the referendum for foundation of a republic is not obtaining the necessary majority.
- 2000 From 15th September until 1st October the XXVII. Olympic Summer Games are held in Sydney.
- 1st August 2002 until July 2003 locu/NetClients is travelling through and living in Australia.